According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the main factors related to good health are linked to physical activity and diet.
The Guide “Eat Healthy and Move: Healthy Choices” gives the tips included in the pyramid recommended in the Strategy for Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention, known as the NAOS Strategy. This is a programme developed by the Ministry of Health and Consumption, through the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, whose objective is to promote healthy eating, regular exercise and the prevention of obesity, especially in children and young people.
EAT HEALTHY, IT’S EASY
Eating is recommended:
-Daily, several times: pasta, rice, vegetables, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, olive oil.
-Several times a week: fish, meat, legumes and nuts.
-Occasionally: sweets, ice cream and soft drinks.
WAKE UP, BREAKFAST
After night fasting, this first meal is necessary to start the day with favourable conditions for adequate physical and intellectual performance.
Breakfast makes a significant contribution to the daily intake of vitamins and minerals.
It should provide between 20 and 25 % of daily calorie requirements.
It will include dairy products, bread, biscuits or similar, cereals, fresh fruit or vegetables. Special attention should be paid to the presence of fibre and limited fat content.
LIVE ACTIVE, MOVE.
A sedentary lifestyle is known to be detrimental to health. Inactivity is associated with risks of certain diseases such as high blood pressure, increased blood cholesterol, diabetes, etc..
It is recommended to move between 30 and 60 minutes a day, every day, at moderate intensity. This can be achieved by taking a more active lifestyle: walking to work, taking walks throughout the day or going up the stairs replacing the elevator.
DO SPORT, HAVE FUN
Sport promotes health care and at the same time is an opportunity to have fun while taking care of physical, mental and social health.
Exercises such as running, walking, swimming, cycling) at moderate intensity are highly recommended. These improve the efficiency of the heart, lungs, help to control body weight, blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol in blood, intestinal rhythm, combat stress, release tension, increase self-esteem, and so on.
QUENCH YOUR THIRST WITH WATER
Drinking water daily is very important for maintaining an adequate state of hydration. Many foods contain abundant water, such as fruits, vegetables, soups, dairy, …
It is necessary to drink 5 to 8 glasses a day. Special care will be taken in the elderly to avoid dehydration.
Avoid excessive consumption of sugary soft drinks and juices with added sugar. Studies have shown a relationship between excessive soft drink consumption and childhood obesity.
LIKE “SPOON”: CARBOHYDRATES ARE THE BASIS
The culinary preparations of potatoes, legumes, vegetables, vegetables, and other foods rich in carbohydrates, which are the basis of food, can be consumed “with a spoon” and be very nutritious.
This type of stew also contains proteins of very good quality, by combining cereals, vegetables and legumes, fiber, helping to prevent obesity and providing varying amounts of minerals and vitamins.
EAT FRUITS AND VEGETABLES “FIVE A DAY”.
You need at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day, two can be vegetables and three fruits. A portion of fruit can be from a banana, an apple, a pear, an orange, or a glass of fresh fruit juice.
The two portions of vegetables can come from about 150 grams per serving raw in the form of a salad, and another portion of sautéed or cooked vegetables, as a main dish or garnish of meats, fish or eggs.
Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants, vitamins A and C, folic acid and minerals (magnesium, potassium, iron, calcium, selenium, zinc). They are also rich in fibre, facilitate hydration and have a low calorie content.
CHOOSE FOODS WITH FIBER
It is advisable to take about 25 grams of fibre a day. This proportion is easily reached when we eat foods rich in fibre.
Fiber is present in foods of vegetable origin. It is a fundamental component of the diet as it helps prevent constipation, improves blood glucose levels and helps reduce cholesterol. By increasing the volume of the diet without adding calories, it has a satiating effect by helping to control weight.
Fiber is found mostly in legumes, whole grains, fruits, vegetables and nuts.
EATS MORE FISH
Fish can be compared to meat or eggs for its richness in protein and a better fat profile as it contains omega 3 fatty acids. Its digestion is better than that of meat. The fish0 fat or blue (salmon, sardines, anchovies, mackerel or bonito), is very beneficial to health.
Lean or white fish (sole, rooster, hake or whiting) offers a good nutritional contribution and provides fewer calories because of its lower fat content.
The small fish when consumed with its spine provide an important supply of calcium.
Two to four portions per week should be taken, alternating fatty and lean fish. It is necessary to stimulate the consumption of fish in children.
It has been shown that in our current diet there is a high consumption of fat. Saturated” fats increase cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic problems. These are fats of animal origin and some of vegetable origin (coso oil, palm and palmaste). This type of fat is abundant in sausages, sausages and charcuterie, fatty meats, bacon, cream, etc.
The “trans” fats are of vegetable origin that have been saturated in an industrial way, being harmful to health, they are also formed when the oils reach high temperatures in the frying, or in a natural way they are in small quantities in meat or milk. They abound in salty appetizers, pizzas, popcorn, pastries and industrial pastries.
Unsaturated” fats are beneficial to health in moderate amounts. Omega-6 fatty acids are abundant in sunflower, corn and soybean oils. Fish, especially blue fish and some nuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The oleic acid, monounsaturated fat present in olive oil is highly recommended, helps to lower cholesterol and prevents cardiovascular and metabolic problems.
LEAVE THE SALT IN THE SALT SHAKER
In our country a lot of salt is consumed, which is associated with problems of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. It is recommended not to consume more than 5 grams a day. The consumption of salty snacks should be reduced from childhood in order to avoid the habit of consuming salty foods. Salt in foods can be substituted by using herbs and spices to season foods.
MAINTAIN PROPER WEIGHT
Healthcare specialists’ concern about weight gain is due to its relationship with chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure or osteoarthritis.
To check the proper weight we can use the “Body Mass Index (BMI)”, which offers a very reliable measure of body fat in most people. This index is calculated by dividing weight (expressed in kilograms) by square height (expressed in metres):